We hope that this beginner stock market investing guide sets you on a good path towards further research and learning, investment success and profits. It really is possible to be a successful investor if you want to be, but it will take time, effort, dedication and patience. If you can find those within yourself and treat investing as a journey that will take years, you can do it too.
It pays to shop around some before deciding on where you want to open an account, and to check out our broker reviews. We list minimum deposits at the top of each review. Some firms do not require minimum deposits. Others may often lower costs, like trading fees and account management fees, if you have a balance above a certain threshold. Still, others may give a certain number of commission-free trades for opening an account.
It depends. 24/7 support is essential to some investors, while others may be completely fine using online chat during regular market hours or receiving an email back within one business day. That said, most investors neglect to think about a market crisis like a flash crash. In our experience, it certainly doesn't hurt to have reliable customer service available for whenever the need may arise.
Brokers are either full-service or discount. Full-service brokers, as the name implies, give the full range of traditional brokerage services, including financial advice for retirement, healthcare and everything related to money. They usually only deal with higher-net-worth clients, and they can charge substantial fees, including a percent of your transactions, a percent of your assets they manage, and sometimes a yearly membership fee. It's common to see minimum account sizes of $25,000 and up at full-service brokerages. Still, traditional brokers justify their high fees by giving advice detailed to your needs.
Some online brokers on the list above allow clients to open an account with $0 down. Investors should take this opportunity and open few brokerage accounts, and see which one they like the most. This will also allow investors to take advantage of unique and valuable features that some companies provide at no charge. For example, Ally Invest offers lots of great trading tools, low mutual funds commission, and $0 minimum to open an account. If a client decides to invest, the firm has hard-to-beat $0 commission on stocks and ETFs. With TD Ameritrade there is also $0 minimum to open an account, and a client will get an amazing selection of independent, third-party investment research, best trading platform on the market, free Level 2 quotes, and a generous promotion offer. There are no inactivity or maintenance fees to worry about - everything is free.
Stock brokers are people or firms licensed to buy and sell stocks and other securities via the stock market exchanges. Back in the day, the only way for individuals to invest directly in stocks was to hire stock brokers to place trades on their behalf. But what was once a clunky, costly transaction conducted via landline telephones now takes place online in seconds, for a fraction of what full-service brokers used to charge for the service. Today, most investors place their trades through an online brokerage account. (A little lost? Check out our explainers on brokerage accounts and buying stocks.)
For the active trader, execution speed and fill price are very important. I won’t get too in depth here but I have tested many of these brokers and there can be noticeable differences in trade execution times and quality. For the majority of investors, saving a penny per share on a 100 shares order isn’t the end of the world, but for active traders it is something to look into. To understand Order Execution, read this guide.
Those exchanges allow the purchase of cryptocurrency either via a card payment, or via a wire transfer / SEPA deposit from your bank account. They will also require some sort of identification because they are bound by financial laws related to customer due diligence and AML (anti money laundering) legislation. You may be asked to provide identification information such as an ID card, a passport or a proof of address. Note that some sites have different thresholds to buy cryptocurrency or withdraw fiat currency to your bank account based on the level of identification info you have provided. If you are into this seriously, make sure to provide the info necessary to the level you want to reach in time, not at the last minute when you want to liquidate your positions (or said differently, when you want to cash out).
Many orders placed by investors and traders begin to execute as soon as the markets open in the morning, which contributes to price volatility. A seasoned player may be able to recognize patterns and pick appropriately to make profits. But for newbies, it may be better just to read the market without making any moves for the first 15 to 20 minutes. The middle hours are usually less volatile, and then movement begins to pick up again toward the closing bell. Though the rush hours offer opportunities, it’s safer for beginners to avoid them at first.
Stock exchanges operate as for-profit institutes and charge a fee for their services. The primary source of income for these stock exchanges are the revenues from the transaction fees that are charged for each trade carried out on its platform. Additionally, exchanges earn revenue from the listing fee charged to companies during the IPO process and other follow-on offerings.
Diversification allows you to recover from the loss of your total investment (20% of your portfolio) by gains of 10% in the two best companies (25% x 40%) and 4% in the remaining two companies (10% x 40%). Even though your overall portfolio value dropped by 6% (20% loss minus 14% gain), it is considerably better than having been invested solely in company E.
But this isn’t your typical market, and you can’t show up and pick your shares off a shelf the way you select produce at the grocery store. Individual traders are typically represented by brokers — these days, that’s often an online broker. You place your stock trades through the broker, which then deals with the exchange on your behalf. (Need a broker? See our analysis of the best stockbrokers for beginners.)
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Define and write down the conditions under which you'll enter a position. "Buy during uptrend" isn't specific enough. Something like this is much more specific and also testable: "Buy when price breaks above the upper trendline of a triangle pattern, where the triangle was preceded by an uptrend (at least one higher swing high and higher swing low before the triangle formed) on the two-minute chart in the first two hours of the trading day."

Though it is called a stock market or equity market and is primarily known for trading stocks/equities, other financial securities - like exchange traded funds (ETF), corporate bonds and derivatives based on stocks, commodities, currencies, and bonds - are also traded in the stock markets. (For related reading, see "What's the Difference Between the Equity Market and the Stock Market?")
Michael R. Lewis is a retired corporate executive and entrepreneur. During his 40+ year career, Lewis created and sold ten different companies ranging from oil exploration to healthcare software. He has also been a Registered Investment Adviser with the SEC, a Principal of one of the larger management consulting firms in the country, and a Senior Vice President of the largest not-for-profit health insurer in the United States. Mike's articles on personal investments, business management, and the economy are available on several online publications. He's a father and grandfather, who also writes non-fiction and biographical pieces about growing up in the plains of West Texas - including The Storm.
Since Betterment launched, other robo-first companies have been founded, and established online brokers like Charles Schwab have added robo-like advisory services. According to a report by Charles Schwab, 58% of Americans say they will use some sort of robo-advice by 2025. If you want an algorithm to make investment decisions for you, including tax-loss harvesting and rebalancing, a robo-advisor may be for you. And as the success of index investing has shown, if your goal is long-term wealth building, you might do better with a robo-advisor.

6. Find a good investment service to subscribe to. Many of the suggestions above can now be covered by joining just one stock market service. These services now aim to pick stocks, offer trading and portfolio management software and educational services too. If things go well, then by investing in the stock market picks, the service can be paid for with profits.
Alternatively, you may be looking at digging hidden gems that may be well below the top 50 or top 100 projects, but still have a very solid technology or are undervalued. Doing your own research may help here, but of course it will require more investment and time spent, with a possibly longer ROI (Return on Investment) but the hope of higher gains.
Regarding your private keys, can either keep them on a software wallet, or on a hardware wallet. The software wallet is the easiest way for beginners, but it implies that you have a computer that is properly secured (strong password, antivirus etc.) and that you do backups of your data. Remember, if you lose your private keys, the money is gone forever. As you get into cryptocurrencies more seriously, you will inevitably look for a hardware wallet, which is a dedicated device resistant to hacking where you can store your private keys (or to say it in an easy way, your crypto assets/invested money). I have already written an article on a hardware wallet, the TREZOR (see here). The most common wallets are the TREZOR and the Ledger Nano S. The TREZOR has a new model being sold from January 2018 (Model T) which will support much more currencies than the current TREZOR. The Ledger Nano S has more integrations currently, but I would recommend to wait for the TREZOR T to judge properly. Those devices usually cost around 100 USD, so once you have more than 100 USD to protect it starts making sense to get one.
Market Depth – the Market Depth view shows the total cumulated offer and demand for a given cryptocurrency. This is the place where we can identify the « sell walls » I was talking about in a previous section. A market that is not manipulated (or at least not overtly) will have a stair-shaped graph on both sizes, with people willing to buy or sell at different values.
Balances and confirmations – this is where you fund your exchange accounts, and also where the money you trade will be deposited. Bear in mind that when you send cryptocurrency to an exchange, or you withdraw cryptocurrency to your personal wallet, there will be a delay that varies per exchange. Each exchange will wait for a certain number of confirmations before effectively releasing your funds, this happens on the blockchain.
The first three points are easy to a certain extent. The point about what to invest into will be covered later on in this guide and will dictate your placement strategy. The final point, about technical expertise, will also dictate what you can and cannot do. Every cryptocurrency has its own specifics, its own wallet (a wallet is where you store your cryptocurrency, more on that later), some are easier to use, some are complicated, not all the cryptocurrencies especially emerging ones have widespread platform support (some only have Windows-based or Linux-based clients, some have also MacOS integration, some support mobile clients etc.) I will cover this in the « Wallets » section.

What would make me sell: Sometimes there are good reasons to split up. For this part of your journal, compose an investing prenup that spells out what would drive you to sell the stock. We’re not talking about stock price movement, especially not short term, but fundamental changes to the business that affect its ability to grow over the long term. Some examples: The company loses a major customer, the CEO’s successor starts taking the business in a different direction, a major viable competitor emerges, or your investing thesis doesn’t pan out after a reasonable period of time.
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