"Investing has become much easier," says Steve Sanders, executive vice president of marketing and new product development at Greenwich, Connecticut-based Interactive Brokers. "More of your hard-earned money will go straight toward your portfolio and not toward paying fees. I think this will be extremely helpful for beginning investors as well as others who like to save money."
Building a diversified portfolio is the priority for beginners who should consider adding index funds that capture the broader market, Swope says. Mutual funds and ETFs are the easiest solutions since they own hundreds to thousands of stocks and are less volatile than individual stocks. ETFs tend to have low minimums, allowing investors to spread their first $10,000 between a few funds and gain access to a variety of areas in the market, he says.
A stock's market capitalization (cap) is the sum of the total shares outstanding multiplied by price. For example, if a company has 1 million outstanding shares priced at $50, its market cap would be $50 million. It has more meaning than the share price because it allows you to evaluate a company in the context of similar-sized companies in its industry. A small-cap company with a capitalization of $500 million shouldn't be compared to a large-cap company worth more than $10 billion. Here are how companies are generally grouped:
If you are literally just getting started, the services offered by most major stockbrokers (information here) as a part of their trading account services will be a good place to start (and free). Firms such as Trade King, eTrade, Charles Schwab and Ameritrade provide a range of online tools. These will give you a feel for how portfolio management software works without having to pay extra to learn. However, these services typically offer no advice (known as execution only), which means that a separate service will be required for information analysis.
Finally, one point to mention is that a given cryptocurrency can be listed in more exchanges, with different listing prices (see below – Arbitraging). The best place to look for a cryptocurrency listing in term of total market capitalisation is Coinmarketcap. Cryptocurrencies are listed per descending order of market capitalisation; the site also allows to deep-dive on each cryptocurrency to see their value over time and where they are listed. Some cryptocurrencies may be listed on several exchanges but only 1 or 2 exchanges may see the critical mass of transactions taking place.

The use of borrowed money “levers” or exaggerates the result of price movement. Suppose the stock moves to $200 a share and you sell it. If you had used your own money exclusively, your return would be 100% on your investment [($20,000 -$10,000)/$10,000]. If you had borrowed $5,000 to buy the stock and sold at $200 per share, your return would be 300 % [(20,000-$5,000)/$5,000] after repaying the $5,000 loan and excluding the cost of interest paid to the broker.
The stock market is made up of exchanges, like the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq. Stocks are listed on a specific exchange, which brings buyers and sellers together and acts as a market for the shares of those stocks. The exchange tracks the supply and demand — and directly related, the price — of each stock. (Need to back up a bit? Read our explainer about stocks.)

Dividends are quarterly payments companies send out to their shareholders. Dividend investing refers to portfolios containing stocks that consistently issue dividend payments throughout the years. These stocks produce a reliable passive income stream that can be beneficial in retirement. You can't judge a stock by its dividend price alone, however. Sometimes companies will increase dividends as a way to attract investors when the underlying company is in trouble. If a company is offering high dividends, ask yourself why management isn't reinvesting some of that money in the company for growth.
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